ISSN 0236-235X (P)
ISSN 2311-2735 (E)

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Publication date:
16 December 2019
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Journal articles №3 2019

1. On the formalization of functional requirements in information system projects [№3 за 2019 год]
Authors: R.D. Gutgarts (gutgarc@gmail.com) - Irkutsk National Research Technical University (Professor), Ph.D; E.I. Provilkov (provilkoff@gmail.com) - Irkutsk National Research Technical University (Postgraduate Student);
Abstract: There are a lot of scientific and applied research devoted to discussion of problems in IT project man-agement. Theн mostly focus on the financial aspects and duration of a project. However, functional as-pects are often overlooked. This might be explained by the fact that such indicators as money and time can be calculated using appropriate methods and algorithms taking into account various risks. Mean-while, a reasonable numerical equivalent to determine project functionality still does not exist. When considering such specialized IT project as the design and development of an information sys-tem (or its separate module), the implemented functionality is a fundamental factor which affects all other project indicators. However, fundamental literature and periodical scientific publications pay in-sufficient attention to functionality as a semantic item for various reasons. Scientists and specialists are mostly interested in managing information systems requirements including functional ones. The for-malization of functional requirements is a subject for discussion in a scientific community and is con-sidered in various aspects. However, there are no standardized or unified solutions. The paper considers the issues related to functional requirements, features of their initial formula-tion, presentation for discussion with a customer and with formalization for software implementation in a project. The authors briefly analyze approaches to the formalization of requirements and propose an ap-proach to the formalization of functional requirements, which can be applied to certain types of tasks that are included in the software that represents an information system as a software product. This may be the first step to create prerequisites for the development of an algorhythmic component. Thus, for a more correct calculation of project complexity, and for more accurate planning of its financial and time costs.
Keywords: it project, information systems design, information systems functional requirements, functional requirements formulating problem, functional requirements formalizatio, functional requirements unification
Visitors: 448

2. Analysis of formulation features of functional requirements to an automated information system [№3 за 2019 год]
Authors: R.D. Gutgarts (gutgarc@gmail.com) - Irkutsk National Research Technical University (Professor), Ph.D; P.M. Polyakova (p.polyakovaa@gmail.com) - Irkutsk National Research Technical University (Graduate Student);
Abstract: The article briefly analyzes typical problems accompanying the stage of identification of requirements for automated information systems (AIS). Since a user sees an information system in a modern context in the form of software (software), the requirements for functional software can be considered equiva-lent to functional requirements for AIS. The paper considers some well-known approaches to the formulation of requirements for AIS in-cluding functional ones, reveals their common and original aspects. There are many requirements for the designed system. However, functional requirements are always primary. AIS requirements related to reliability, customizability, technical support, interface organization taking into account error han-dling, etc. are secondary to functional and are fully determined by them. They also depend on the cur-rent level of development of relevant information technologies including programming technologies. The analysis is based on experts’ opinions presented in classical thematic sources. The study has shown that so far the tasks related to the correct formulation of functional require-ments for software do not have an unambiguous solution, although attempts to structure them and (or) unify them are being made. The paper proposes an approach to a semantic content of functional requirements taking into ac-count the algorithmic aspect for their further software implementation. It is based on one of the classi-cal control functions (accounting function, calculation, analysis, control, regulation) in the textual for-mulation and allows seeing the informational relationship between source data, an algorithm and re-sults. This may be a necessary and sufficient condition that promotes some unification when identifying functional requirements. There is the example illustrating the proposed approach.
Keywords: automated information systems, functional requirements for information systems, approaches to formulating functional requirements, unification of functional requirements, information system design
Visitors: 324

3. Predicting an object state based on applying the Kalman filter and deep neural networks [№3 за 2019 год]
Authors: A.Yu. Puchkov (putchkov63@mail.ru) - Smolensk Branch of the Moscow Power Engineering Institute (Associate Professor), Ph.D; Dli M.I. (midli@mail.ru) - (Smolensk Branch of the Moscow Power Engineering Institute, Ph.D; E.I. Lobaneva (lobaneva94@mail.ru) - Smolensk Branch of the Moscow Power Engineering Institute, Department of Information Technologies in Economics and Management Smolensk (Postgraduate Student); M.A. Vasilkova (vasilkova_mariya00@mail.ru) - Smolensk Branch of the Moscow Power Engineering Institute, Department of Information Technologies in Economics and Management Smolensk (Student);
Abstract: The paper presents an algorithm for predicting an object state based on data from different sources (for example, video cameras) coming in the form of images aimed at critical technological zones. The pro-posed algorithm is based on the consistent use of a deep artificial neural network and the Kalman filter. A neural network is designed to reduce the input data dimension (images) performing the function of an encoder, which gives of an observation vector of the object state on the output. Based on these ob-servations, the object state is evaluated by a recurrent filter. Using the filter directly for images would lead to a large dimension of the problem; it would be impossible to perform it practically due to com-putational difficulties. The program that implements the proposed algorithm was developed in Python 3.6 using the Spyder integrated environment from the Anaconda assembly for the Linux operating environment. The choice of a programming language is due to the availability of powerful libraries for machine learning Tensor-Flow from Google, as well as the convenient Keras framework for creating and working with deep neu-ral networks. The paper describes the results of a model experiment on using the proposed algorithm for predict-ing an object state, which consisted in attributing the obtained observations to a particular class. The experiment also involved generating sets of images belonging to different classes, differing in their tex-ture. A line-by-line horizontal pixel shift simulated the noise in the images. The comparative analysis of the predicted results with and without using the Kalman filter has shown that filtering reduces the number of false classifications. The developed algorithm might be used in decision support systems and automated process control systems.
Keywords: computer vision, Kalman filter, deep neural networks
Visitors: 381

4. Methodical support of designing a dynamic object geographic information systems infrastructure [№3 за 2019 год]
Authors: T.M. Tatarnikova (tm-tatarn@yandex.ru) - St. Petersburg State University of Aerospace Instrumentation (Associate Professor, Professor), Ph.D; N.V. Yagotinceva (tm-tatarn@yandex.ru ) - Russian State Hydrometeorological University (Senior Lecturer);
Abstract: The paper considers the problem of applying geographic information systems (GIS) in managing dy-namic objects. It proposes a structural-functional model of a ship GIS. Functional modules that form a ship local area network represent the GIS hardware layer. It is shown that in order to control a dynamic object, functional modules of GIS hardware must meet the delivery time limits recommended by spatial data distribution standards. The authors form the research task as the task of developing methodological support for ship GIS design for specified sailing goals and taking into account the restrictions on the required GIS perfor-mance indicators when working with spatial data. The choice of a GIS infrastructure is an integral prob-lem of conditional multiparameter optimization with cost and GIS project performance limits. The paper proposes a method of forming a GIS infrastructure with a given set of properties. The method includes the steps of forming initial data, estimating temporal characteristics of spatial data de-livery to a decision maker, determining a GIS infrastructure that meets cost and performance require-ments, and determining the bottleneck in a GIS structure. The initial data of ship GIS design are a ship application and a sea navigation area. The ship application makes it possible to determine the minimum number of workstations, and the sea navigation area determines the minimum composition of the equipment on a ship, which is determined by the Global Maritime Distress and Safety System the Russian Federation.
Keywords: local network, ship, , structural-functional model, dynamic object management, decision making, geographic information system, a dynamic object
Visitors: 294

5. A simplified method for skeletonization of non-convex figures [№3 за 2019 год]
Authors: A.V. Kuchuganov (Aleks_KAV@udm.ru) - Kalashnikov Izhevsk State Technical University (Associate Professor), Ph.D;
Abstract: The approximation of graphic information through the skeletonization of object images is a way to re-place objects with simpler and more convenient representations in semantic analysis problems and im-age recognition. Skeletons are widely used in technical vision systems, content image search, in geo-metric modeling and visualization. The most popular approaches: based on “erosion” (removal of ob-ject boundary points) and mathematical (based on Voronoi diagrams formed by Delaunay triangula-tion, inscribing circles or using the wave method). A common disadvantage of the existing skeleton building algorithms is the loss of information about the width of the original figure sections, which is often necessary in image recognition and description tasks. The paper proposes an approach that follows the previously published method of skeletalization based on heuristic rules and consists in the sequential cutting off of figure segments with minimal chords in places where the border of the figure has a negative inflection when it is counterclockwise. Then segments are constructed connecting the midpoints of the chords of adjacent segments. The seg-ments are combined into chains that form a nonconvex figure skeleton. In this case, the lengths of the obtained chords carry information about a figure width in the corresponding sections. The experiments were related to two subject areas: processing scanned archival drawings of parts of a general engineering application to use previously gained experience in designing new products and reducing the overall design time and technological preparation of production, as well as the problem of recognizing a continuous handwritten text in the off-line mode.
Keywords: skeleton, secant chord, nonconvex polygon, border, color segmentation, raster image
Visitors: 381

6. Design of the QVT Operational Mappings interpreter for UML Refactoring in terms of the model driven architecture approach [№3 за 2019 год]
Authors: O.A. Deryugina (o.a.derugina@yandex.ru) - MIREA – Russian Technological University (Lecturer), Ph.D; E.V. Kryuchkova (o.a.derugina@yandex.ru) - MIREA – Russian Technological University (Bachelor of Science);
Abstract: The paper discusses the MDA (Model Driven Architecture) approach, which has been introduced by the OMG consortium and is aimed at the automation of the software development process. MDA pro-poses the following steps of the software development: design of the Platform Independent Model (PIM), design of the Platform Specific Model (PSM), development of the Code Model. The paper provides an overview of the MDA standards: XMI (XML Metadata Interchange), which unifiers model and metamodel interchange between software products; QVT (Que-ry/View/Transformation), which describes model query languages. The paper is aimed at the design of the QVT Operational Mappings language Interpreter for the UML Refactoring tool. The UML Refactoring tool provides the UML class diagram analysis and trans-formation. Typically, UML class diagrams are used to describe the software object-oriented architec-ture. UML Refactoring tool provides object-oriented metrics calculation (Avg, DIT, Avg. NOC, Avg. CBO, etc.) and searching for the transformations (Interface Insertion, Façade, Strategy) minimizing the refactoring fitness function value, which has been chosen by a user. Based on the information about the QVTo language, the Interpreter class has been designed for the UML Refactoring tool. This class translates QVT commands to the sequence of the transformations of the UML class diagram including add class transformation, add attribute to class, add method to class, add interface, add attribute to interface, add method to interface, add package, add class to package, add interface to package, add package to package. For each transformation, there is a newly designed class to extend Refactoring.java class. This class is an input for the Transformator.java class, which calls method execute() of the Refactoring.java class.
Keywords: mda, model oriented approach, software architecture, software architecture, uml refactoring, uml, qvt
Visitors: 294

7. Automation of program verification using graph analytical models of a computational process [№3 за 2019 год]
Authors: A.G. Zykov (zykov_a_g@mail.ru) - The National Research University of Information Technologies, Mechanics and Optics, Ph.D; Ya.S. Golovanev (golovanev98@mail.ru) - St. Petersburg National Research University Information Technology, Mechanics and Optics (ITMO University) (Student); V.I. Polyakov (v_i_polyakov@mail.ru) - The National Research University of Information Technologies, Mechanics and Optics (Associate Professor), Ph.D;
Abstract: The constant growth in the volume and quantity of software being created requires development of new tools that reduce the time for designing and developing the next product. These tools include automat-ed verification tools. Verification of computational processes implemented by software is a complex and time-consuming task. The need for new verification automation tools is increasing due to an in-crease in the number of systems using various programming languages and requirements for shortening the implementation of projects. So far the urgency of the task of creating universal interlanguage veri-fication tools remains high. The paper discusses the method and means of computational process verification automation based on the description of a graph analytical model. The proposed method assumes that a description in the developed language is restored according to the developed program and then it is compared with the reference description of a graph analytical model, according to which it was created. After that, in the automatic mode, the program is either verified and determined as correct by comparison results, or de-tailed information about a mismatch is given and a program source text is modified interactively ac-cording to the information received, and the verification process is repeated. The aim of the study is to automate verification of C/C# programs by a group of descriptions of a graph analytical model of a computational process. This study includes a developing a tool that allows converting program source codes into descrip-tions of a graph analytical model and performing automated formal verification of a project. The developed utility was tested on the recovered descriptions of the graph analytical model of C/C# and Java programs for array processing (merge sort, Dijkstra's algorithm). The synthesized exe-cutable was successfully tested in the Windows 10 operating system. In the future, it is planned to develop the utility along with new versions of a description language in order to expand the analyzing options and program verifying.
Keywords: verification, automation, language for description of the graph analytical model, program conversion, computational process, syntactic analysis, graph-analytic model
Visitors: 296

8. The prototype of an intelligent e-book based on technology of knowledge direct imposition [№3 за 2019 год]
Authors: G.B. Bronfeld (stolem1985@gmail.com) - Nizhny Novgorod State Technical University n.a. R.E. Alekseev (Associate Professor), Ph.D; D.I. Kirov (tmdagger2000@gmail.com) - Nizhny Novgorod State Technical University n.a. R.E. Alekseev (Postgraduate Student); V.V. Kondratyev (vv-kondratiev@yandex.ru) - Nizhny Novgorod State Technical University n.a. R.E. Alekseev (Professor, Corresponding Member of RAS), Ph.D;
Abstract: The paper considers the process of introduction of intelligent e-books (IEB). It briefly discusses the ba-sics of creating the IEB in the form of an elinga. Elinga is based on the technology of direct imposition of knowledge (TDIK). TDIK includes applying a new model of knowledge representation – molinga, which in fact repre-sents text sentences as short semantic networks. The developed knowledge bases include a large set of molingas. The use of TDIK makes the knowledge base to contain only sentences with different seman-tic meanings. Molinga corresponds to the structure of production models, however it has a core con-taining a simple sentence with a code description, indicating a confidence factor and postconditions. These postconditions might contain graphical images, data files, or calculation models. The technology is developed in the framework of expert systems design, however each component is implemented differently. As a result, a software package – elinga – has unique capabilities in com-parison with conventional expert systems. Molingas allow applying TDIK introduced by J. Gray to nu-meric data as well. A logical inference is based on using the modified modus ponens rule. The process of finding a solu-tion is based on the dialog-associative search in the human-computer discourse using intermediate re-sults obtained during the logical inference. The paper describes basic functions of the elinga prototype and its operation modes. The elinga ac-tually implements V. Bush’s dream. Based on a fundamentally new technology, this approach allows users to solve various problems that were unsolvable or difficult to solve earlier more effectively using different basis of knowledge integration.
Keywords: direct imposing of knowledge, elinga, molinga, text, knowledge model, knowledge, book
Visitors: 367

9. Implementation of a fuzzy model of interaction between objects in complex technical systems based on graphs [№3 за 2019 год]
Author: Е.R. Muntyan (ermuntyan@sfedu.ru) - Southern Federal University (Associate Professor);
Abstract: The paper describes the process of developing a fuzzy model based on graphs, which allows investigat-ing the joint action of objects in complex technical systems using the example of a part of an extended perimeter security system. The objects of such system are stationary and mobile objects of a protected perimeter, uninhabited intelligent interacting mobile robotic platforms, a decision maker who controls their movement (here it is a computer), and potential intruders entering a protected perimeter territory. To represent objects of complex technical systems, the model uses the concept of “actor” according to the Actor-network theory of B. Latour. The results of simulating an extended perimeter protection system are analyzed on the example of three models that take into account various types of communi-cation in a graph: model 1 with the same type of connections, model 2 with the same and different types of connections, model 3 with the same type, different types of edges and multiple connections in a vector form. To simulate and study joint actions of objects in complex technical systems, the author proposes a fuzzy model of interaction of actors, which makes it possible to take into account the complex of vari-ous types of communication between graph nodes according to the specifics of the subject domain. These models are implemented in the software module developed by the author. Experimental research have shown the advantage of the model 3 proposed in the article (a multiple link graph).
Keywords: complex technical system, graph, actor, heterogeneous and multiple connections, fuzzy actor interaction model, perimeter security system, program realization
Visitors: 296

10. Developing a self-learning method for a spiking neural network to protect against DDoS attacks [№3 за 2019 год]
Authors: E.V. Palchevsky (teelxp@inbox.ru) - Ufa State Aviation Technical University; O.I. Khristodulo (o-hristodulo@mail.ru ) - Ufa State Aviation Technical University (Professor), Ph.D;
Abstract: The paper is devoted to the development of a specialized training method for a spiking neural network, which allows speeding up the detection and elimination of attacks by external unauthorized traffic. The paper considers the problem of protecting information availability and teaching neural net-works. It also justifies the need for mathematical analysis to develop new methods of self-learning of neural networks. The paper introduces the developed self-learning spiking neural network that is nec-essary to protect against DDoS attacks. A new self-learning method for a spiking neural network is based on the uniform distribution of neurons across all cores of each processor in a cluster. This allows a neural network to learn from scratch in a short time (530 minutes). As a result, it quickly and effec-tively eliminates DDoS attacks. The authors tested the developed spiking neural network in two modes: combat and normal. The tests gave load values for physical resources of each physical server in a cluster. Long-term testing of a spiking neural network shows fairly low load on a central processor, RAM and solid-state drive during DDoS attacks. Naturally, optimal load increases the availability of each physical server, and makes it possible to simultaneously run resource-intensive computational processes without any disruption of the working environment. Testing was conducted on computing cluster servers in one of Moscow data centers. The spiking neural network has shown stable operation and effective protection against DDoS attacks.
Keywords: information security, data transfer, networks, ddos, antiddos, unix, operation system, data, data processing, information
Visitors: 318

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