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№2

Publication date:

16 June 2019

## Articles of journal № 3 at 2018 year.

Order result by: Public date | Title | Authors |

21. The effectiveness of stage-by-stage use of securirty means crossing threat detection areas

*[№3 за 2018 год]*

**Authors:**V.S. Kolomoitsev, V.A. Bogatyrev

**Visitors:**968

The paper investigates the ways of improving the efficiency of a secure access scheme “direct connection”. The scheme is based on choosing options for its construction, taking into account the phased use of various information security means and their integration into a cluster architecture system aimed at consolidating limited protection resources. Consol-idation of protection resources is carried out in order to achieve maximum security with minimum delays and system costs. The authors propose criteria for the effectiveness of information security systems aimed at increasing the probability of threat detection in the shortest time, taking into account its limitations. The proposed criteria take into account the average time of request stay in the system and the probability of threat detection and removal by an information security system. There is an assumption that the service time of each stage is a random value having exponential distribution. The paper proposes models of estimating the probability of detection and elimination of threats and delays based on the sequence of application of information security means in the nodes. The models take into account intersections of sets of threats detected by various means of information security. The authors show the possibility of implementing an adaptive strategy of consistent application of information security means to prevent threats to information security depending on changing intensity of incoming requests. There are some options of bundling nodes by a complete or partial set of available software or hardware-software means of information security.

22. An algorithm of information security residual risk assessment taking into account a protection mechanisms separation by types

*[№3 за 2018 год]*

**Authors:**D.A. Derendyaev, Yu.A. Gatchin, V.А. Bezrukov

**Visitors:**967

Analyzing modern approaches to assessing the risk of information security threats, the authors conclude that most of these approaches do not consider protection mechanisms separation by types, which would allow a better analysis of the existing protection system in an enterprise. The presented algorithm takes into account such separation and considers each type with an emphasis on its features. Due to the absence of clear separation of protection mechanisms, it is proposed to divide them into two groups: technical and organizational. To calculate residual risk, the authors taken into account additional variables, such as a possibility of the correct operation of the protection mechanism and the possibility of overcoming the mechanism in threat materializing. Technical protection mechanisms reqiire taking into account the probability of transition to an inoperative state over time. Considering organizational measures, it is worth considering an expiration of its validity or its changing due to changing conditions. Such processes have random nature, therefore the mathematical apparatuses of the hidden Markov model and random Markov processes are used to determine their probabilities. The final indicator of residual risk is determined using an alternative mathematical model obtained after a full factorial experiment. This model allows obtaining more correct values as it considers input parameters at upper and lower levels. As a result of the algorithm implementation, the values of residual risks are determined taking into account counteraction to the threat of each type of protective measures, which allows identifying the disadvantages of the protection system more precisely.

23. A hybrid algorithm for solving optimization problems of computer-aided design and its software implementation

*[№3 за 2018 год]*

**Authors:**L.A. Gladkov, S.N. Leyba, V.B. Tarasov

**Visitors:**1068

The article suggests a hybrid algorithm for solving complex design optimization problems. The work of the algorithm is examined using the example of solving the problems of placement and tracing elements of digital electronic computing equipment circuits. The paper gives a problem statement, limitations of the admissible solutions domain and formulates a criterion for estimating the quality of solutions. The authors propose a new hybrid approach to solving this problem based on a combination of evolutionary search methods, the mathematical apparatus of fuzzy logic and the possibilities of parallel organization of the computational process. They also propose a modified migration operator to exchange information between solution populations in the process of performing parallel computations. The structure of the parallel hybrid algorithm is developed. The paper proposes implementation of the fuzzy control module based on using a multilayer neural network and the Gaussian function. It also notes the main differences of the proposed structure of a neural network from “traditional” neural networks. The basic principles of the fuzzy control unit are formulated. The authors consider the features of software implementation of the proposed hybrid algorithm in detail. They also state the requirements to the architecture of the developed program taking into account the need to support the modularity and extensibility of the application. There are some examples of the description of a printed circuit board element based on existing specifications. The paper describes the interface structure and the main elements of the graphic interface of the developed application. To assess the quality of the obtained solutions and the search for solutions in general, it was suggested to use parameters characterizing the dynamics of changes in the mean and the best values of the objective function, as well as the diversity of the population. There is a brief description of the computational experiments that confirm the effectiveness of the proposed method. The paper shows dependencies of the probability of the performance of genetic operators on control parameter values.

24. Kvorum – the system for modeling the behavior of robotic agent groups with elements of social organization

*[№3 за 2018 год]*

**Authors:**V.E. Karpov, M.A. Rovbo, E.E. Ovsyannikova

**Visitors:**2326

The paper describes the Kvorum architecture, which is a multi-agent modeling environment designed to develop constructive solutions and algorithms of robot agents’ individual behavior, as well as for modeling behavior of large groups of robots. The main objective of the system is to provide tools for research in applying social organization methods in group robotics. Kvorum is a prototype simulation and agent modeling system that abstracts the complexity of a physical system and provides convenient interfaces and library modules for modeling groups of mobile robots and internal structures of individual agents. It was built as a modular, easily extensible system focused on modeling systems with a large number of agents by simplifying physical and other effects, and also by the ability to perform simulations using parallel computations. It is shown that the proposed method for modeling such systems is applicable to a wide range of problems from the field of group robotics with social structure elements (as well as for common robotics and group robotics problems in general). Some features of architecture and models in Kvorum allow it to be expanded in subsequent iterations to fully support simulation on parallel computing systems. One of the important Kvorum features is the focus on controlling real robotic systems. For this purpose the system provides the same control control interfaces of both computational models and real robots. The system was tested on some specific problems of group robotics, in particular those that use social structure mechanisms, as well as on a group of laboratory robots of different types that support the simulation system interface.

25. Algorithmic undecidability of the problem of first-order correspondence of computational tree logic formulas

*[№3 за 2018 год]*

**Authors:**M.N. Rybakov, L.A. Chagrova

**Visitors:**673

It is common to use the first-order language as a formal tool for describing properties of various (computational) structures. On the one hand, this language is well understood and easy to use; on the other, many questions that are im-portant from the applications point of view related to this language are algorithmically undecidable, i.e., cannot be answered using a computer program. These days, there exist various alternative languages that can be used for describing computational processes and their properties, for which the corresponding questions are, in contrast to the first-order language, algorithmically decidable. In this paper, we consider one of such languages, – the language of the Computational Tree Logic (CTL). It is commonly used for program verification as it is capable of describing properties of computational processes, – in particular, properties of the binary relation used in the Kripke semantics. The authors investigate the possibility of finding algorithmically first-order formulas defining the same classes of Kripke frames as the formulas of the language of CTL. It is well known the problem of finding first-order correspondents of propositional intuitionistic formulas is algorithmically undecidable. The authors reduce – using the Gödel translation of intuitionistic formulas into modal ones, and subsequently a translation of resultant modal formulas into CTL-formulas – the first-order correspondence problem for propositional intuitionistic formulas to the first-order correspondence problem for CTL-formulas on Kripke frames. As a result of this reduction, they prove that the first-order correspondence problem for CTL-formulas is algorithmically undecidable. In the conclusion, the authors discuss some possible modifications of their construction for fragments of the language of CTL as well as algorithmic decidability of the CTL correspondence problem for first-order formulas.

26. A nested model of radio-electronic systems for estimation of temporary reliability

*[№3 за 2018 год]*

**Authors:**S.V. Ignatev, Yu.A. Plaksa, A.V. Krasnikov , А.V. Drozhin

**Visitors:**791

The effective intended application of special-purpose complexes based on radio-electronic systems involves a proper choice of optimal exploitation methods, as well as organization of maintenance, first line repair and supply of the sys- tems with replacement tools and supplies to provide high readiness of the systems for using as intended. For this purpose, there is a system of maintenance with the operating effectiveness depending on the relative position of the radio-electronic systems in a terrain. The essence of the article implies the construction of a nested model of radio-electronic systems designed to develop environment tools allowing to estimate temporary reliability characteristics of the nested radio-electronic systems as well as to undertake the study taking into account a relative position of nest elements and temporary correlation between them. The construction of the nest model has two stages. The first one is the construction of a terrain transport network representing a combination of a graph and a reachability matrix. The approach allows obtaining all possible routes between transport network elements. The second stage includes a description of radio-electronic nest systems by highlighting special type apexes in the transportation network, which include nest radio-electronic systems elements. Then there goes the construction of a spatial and temporary nested model of radio-electronic systems that represens the combination of a graph and reachability sub-matrixes with each route being relevant of temporary features (the route movement time). The spatial and temporary nested model is implemented in C#. It allows calculating temporal reliability indicators taking into account the influence of various factors and estimating the degree of their influence on the availability factor.

27. F-Ranking: a computer system for ranking fuzzy numbers

*[№3 за 2018 год]*

**Authors:**A.V. Radaev, A.V. Korobov, Yatsalo B.I.

**Visitors:**972

In many areas of human activities, people face uncertainties. One of the ways of handling and analyzing uncertainties is using fuzzy sets including fuzzy logic and fuzzy numbers. The use of fuzzy numbers within decision analysis inevitably leads to the problems of their comparison and ranking. Despite the variety of ranking methods, the majority of the existing systems with fuzzy numbers use only defuzzification methods. However, the replacement of a fuzzy number by one real number (like the replacement of the probability distribution density by the corresponding mathematical expectation) inevitably leads to narrowing and loss of information in the original fuzzy number. The paper presents an original computer system F-Ranking for ranking different fuzzy numbers. The system allows using fuzzy numbers with singletons, triangular, trapezoidal and piecewise (including sectionally continuous from above) fuzzy numbers as input data. F-Ranking system includes six methods for ranking fuzzy numbers based on defuzzification: three defuzzification based ranking methods (a centroid index, median, and an integral of alpha-cut mean values) along with two ranking methods based on pairwise comparison (Fuzzy Rank Acceptability Analysis) using Integral and Yuan’s fuzzy preference relations. For the last two methods, a preference fuzzy measure of one fuzzy number over another as well as Fuzzy Rank Acceptability Indexes are available. The paper briefly describes the algorithms of the mentioned methods. The authors make a review of existing systems, which can be used for ranking fuzzy numbers. There is the structure of F-Ranking system with input/output forms and examples of ranking fuzzy numbers using different methods. These examples show the features of the ranking methods under consideration as well as the possibilities of F-Ranking system in general.

28. Input language of a computer-aided system for shaft forging

*[№3 за 2018 год]*

**Authors:**Kanyukov S.I., Konovalov A.V., Muizemnek O.Yu.

**Visitors:**954

A computer-aided system for shaft press forging design has been created at the Institute of Engineering Science, Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The linguistic support of this system includes a specialized input language for input of initial information and operational adjustments of intermediate and finished results of forging design by users. The input of initial information can be done by two ways: inputting information of a new forged part or reading and adjusting (if necessary) information of a forged part (or a forging), which is already available in a database. The input language part responsible for inputting information of a new forged part provides filling three zones of a corresponding menu. These zones contain general information on the forged part, on the forged part geometry and a design plan. The latter includes a list of tasks to be done in the computer-aided design of forging. Computer-aided design of forging includes the assignment of machining and heat-treatment allowances, addition of various specimens for mechanical testing and macro-control, assignment of forging overlaps, a definition of technical requirements and a simulation of a workpiece working drawing, which consists of seven graphic zones. The input language part responsible for adjusting the workpiece working drawing allows selecting a drawing format (A3 or A4), changing the size of graphic areas with scaling geometric objects and moving them within the drawing field, adjusting numerical and text values of forging parameters inside zones by drop-down menus, controlling the visibility of zones. The described input language of the computer-aided technological design system provides convenient input of initial information about forged parts, ensures obtaining workpiece working drawings suitable for production processes, and greatly facilitates system adaptation to different enterprise conditions.

29. The system of statistical analysis and control of hydraulic unit vibration stability

*[№3 за 2018 год]*

**Authors:**Klyachkin V.N., Yu.E. Kuvayskova , Ivanova A.V.

**Visitors:**838

The system of vibration monitoring of a hydraulic unit includes indications of a distributed network of relative and absolute vibration intelligent sensors, as well as sensors for measuring the shaft rotation speed. These sensors are designed to work as a part of the hydraulic unit control system. The sensors are combined into one local network to transfer data on vibration parameters to the control system. The network operation mode during stationary operation of the unit can use multivariate statistical control algorithms in order to estimate vibration stability. These algorithms are similar to those used for controlling multiparameter technological processes. Such approach ensures early detection of process abnormalities using statistical methods and timely taking of control actions. Based on the conducted research and result analysis of vibration monitoring of the hydroelectric unit in the Krasnopolanskaya hydroelectric power station, there is a developed software system that provides monitoring of the vibration stability. The system in-cludes three subsystems: for visualization and grouping indicators, as well as for monitoring independent and correlated groups of indicators by stability criteria of the average level and the scattering the corresponding processes. In order to control independent in-dicators, the authors use Shewhart charts for mean values and standard deviations. When controlling correlated indicators, Hotelling charts are used to monitor the mean process level and a generalized variance chart for monitoring multidimensional scattering. The system ensures timely detection of possible abnormalities and prevents overranging of controlled indicators.

30. Modeling nanoporous structures of silica-resorcinol-formaldehyde aerogels

*[№3 за 2018 год]*

**Authors:**I.V. Lebedev, A.Yu. Tyrtyshnikov, Ivanov S.I., Menshutina N.V.

**Visitors:**819

The paper is dedicated to investigating and modeling the structure of silica-resorcinol-formaldehyde aerogels. It considers experimental research on production of hybrid silica-resorcinol-formaldehyde aerogels based on the varying conditions for their production (reagent ratio, amount of solvent, etc.). The structural characteristics were the following parameters: a specific surface area and pore size distribution. The generation of structures corresponding to the real ones makes it possible to model various properties of aerogels in silico, which in turn saves resources when carrying out costly experiments. The authors have studied the existing methods of generating porous structures of silicon-resorcinol-formaldehyde aerogels. To model such aerogel structures, they have chosen the Diffusion-Limited Cluster Aggregation (DLCA) method. The paper considers the conducted computational experiments for generating model structures and compares them with experimental ones according to the selected criteria (pore size distribution and specific surface area). The results of a number of computational experiments showed good convergence between experimental and simulated structures of hybrid silicon-resorcinol-formaldehyde aerogels. To implement this method, a C# algorithm was developed in the Microsoft Visual Studio development environment. The created software requires the Microsoft Windows 7 operating system and above and at least 2 GB of RAM. The paper presents the results of computational experiments and the algorithm for generating silica-resorcinol-formaldehyde aerogel structures. The developed software allows obtaining real structures of silica-resorcinol-formaldehyde aerogels with given structural characteristics.

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